Among the 10 major artisanal
The New Technology Package
In order to resolve this problem, the Dept. of Science and Technology supported a countrywide study of production practices of potters and conducted in depth R&D work with the help of CGCRI and several VOs. This led to the evolution of a technology package which successfully resolved the problems of poor quality and depleting white clay resources by developing a protocol of admixtures for red-clay and appropriately scaled machinery for clay processing. As a result, the potter can now utilize the commonly found red-clay for making excellent quality glazed-ware obviating the dependence on costly white clay. Moreover, with the introduction of this new technology, the product range of the potter expands and thus the dying trade can be rejuvenated. The salient features of this technology package are:-
¨ Suitable treatment, processing and admixture techniques for upgradation of the quality of common or red-clay.
¨ Matching non-toxic glazes.
¨ Appropriately scaled machinery for use by potter groups.
¨ New type kilns for fuel efficiency and reduction of breakage.
¨ Innovative product range including sanitary- and table-ware, decorative items and constructing material.
¨ Low cost bone ash preparation for bone china.
¨ A system-design incorporation clusters of potters, using the technology package, with linkages with S&T institutions and producing the innovative product range with suitable marketing strategy.
¨ Date base on diverse clay types, quality upgradation protocols, technical and economic features of clay-based artisanal production and social dimensions of artisanal pottery.
This newly developed technology package has the following advantages :
Ø Locally available red-clay can be used.
Ø Quality of the products is better.
Ø Drudgery is reduced.
Ø Wider range of products can be made including tableware and sanitary-ware.
Ø Breakage and wastage is reduced.
Ø Fuel efficiency is maintained.
All these advantages lead to an augmentation of the incomes of impoverished potters and even generation of employment while at the same time reducing drudgery. On the other hand, the product is cheap, durable and aesthetically suitable.
a) Improved Clay Quality. Traditionally, potters use red-clay which cannot be fired beyond 850 deg C, thus preventing the use of appropriate glazes. In the new technology package, the properties of locally available clays are enhanced by addition of suitable admixtures like chin-clay, quartz, feldspar etc. The proportion of admixtures depends on the properties of the local clay which have to be determined through physico-chemical tests. With the help of CGCRI a typology for different types of clays from different geo-climatic zones is being prepared in order to standardize the admixture proportions. Once the quality of the clay is upgraded, it can be fired at temperatures upto 1100 deg C.
b) Machines for Clay Processing. In order to further improve the quality of the clay and reduce the drudgery, some suitably de-scaled machines are introduced. These are : the ball-mill and the pug-mill which homogenize the clay body and render it suitable for forming. These machines are suitable for small operations and they can be run on single-phase power supply or even 5kw DG. Sets.
c) New Forming Techniques. In order that the potter may produce a diversified range of items, new machinery and techniques and also introduced for better forming (shaping) of the clay. These include a mechanized potter’s wheel and the jigger-jolly. Items like tableware can be produced at much higher rates through the use of these new adapted machines. For making tiles a screw press is used while slip-casting techniques are introduced for fine products.
d) Matching Glaze Preparation. Available non-toxic glazes are matched to the clay body and used for creating opaque and transparent glazed fishes for the products. These glazes are made by grinding the frit (crystals) in the small balmill/pot-mill, applying it to the biscuit-fired product and then firing it again at higher temperatures.
e) Improved Kiln. A fuel-efficient down-draft kiln, fired with wood is part of the package. This kiln can attain temperatures upto 1200 deg C which are required for the new product range.
The nodal centre is set up at a location which is easily accessible for a cluster of 5-10 potters’ families. The Centre serves as a common facility and contains most of the functions described above. Due to the new technology package and economies of scale, productivity is substantially increased. A centralized marketing network is also coordinated through the Nodal Centre. At a later stage, some of the functions can be decentralized. For example, clay processing, forming and low-temperatures firing (upto the ‘biscuit’ stage) can be done at satellite units while the final firing can be undertaken at the Nodal level.
Conditions for Applicability
Several conditions need to be kept in mind before undertaking the introduction of this technology in any field area. These are :-
· Red-clay should be available in substantial quantity in the vicinity.
· There should sufficient concentration of potters in the area.
· A reasonable market-potential for diversified pottery-ware should exist nearby.
· Electricity should be available as also running water.
Land and Infrastructure
A minimum of 500-750 sq. yards of land should be available with the VO. This will be used to build pits, store clay and other materials, and accommodate the down-draft kiln which has a 30 feet chimney. A Workshed of about 1200 sq. ft. covered area will be required where all operations will be housed. Water and electricity should be available. The location should be such as to be easily accessible to potters and preferably connected by motorable road. It would be advisable to locate the unit at a medium level cluster of potters, which would naturally be near clay deposit.
Equipment/Machinery and its Costs:
The following equipment/machinery will be needed. Costs are only illustrative – they will vary from place to place – and with time.
Items Nos. Cost(in Rs.)
Ball-Mill (2’ x 2.5’) 1 12,000
Ball-Mill (1’ x 1.5’) for glaze 1 6,500
Motorized Potter Wheel 1 5,000
Hand-operated Potters’ Wheel 1 500
Screw-press for tiles (HFP4) 1 8,500
Baby Pug Mill 1 11,500
Universal Jigger Jolly 1 10,500
Painter’s Wheel 2 1,000
Disintegrator (1.8”) 1 6,500
DD Kiln (6’ x x’) 1 75,000
Motor (5 hp), Shft. And
Electrical accessories 1 set 15,000
Dies etc. 6,000
Suggested Outline for a Typical Project
It bears emphasis that the project can only be formulated on the basis of thorough Field Investigations which should be carried out in consultation with the Resource Agency. The implementation of the Project also needs to be done only with constant back up by Resource Agency. CAPART guidelines should be followed while finalizing the Proposal.
a) To establish a Nodal facility incorporating the new technology package at a suitable site in the field area serving network of 8-10 potters.
b) To train the selected potters in the various aspects of the new technology package.
c) To supervise trial production at the Nodal Unit and provide all necessary technical and managerial backup for the same.
d) To establish links with S&T Institutions and Resource Agencies for providing expert assistance.
e) To identify the diversified new product range and establish its marketing linkages.
f) Thus, to achieve viable and sustainable production levels at the unit.
g) And thereby, to augment the incomes of traditional potters through the introduction of a new technology package for production of red-clay pottery-ware while making available this cheap yet durable product range in the local market.
Prior to the initiation of the Project, a thorough Field Investigation must be carried out. Networking with potters of the field area should exist and be further strengthened for the Project.
Red-clay samples from deposites in the field area are sent for analysis. Admixtures are made on the basis of the results thereof. As suitably located site for the Nodal Unit is identified and the infrastructure established. Required equipment and machinery is also acquired.
The Core Team for the Project is selected and imparted intensive training at a Resource Agency and at CGCRI. Field level training is conducted by this team at the Nodal Unit, with the help of experts. The trained potters initiate trial production at the Unit. Once the admixtures, body forming and product range is optimized, full scale production is initiated. During this period necessary inputs from S&T experts and the coordinating agency have to be taken. It is essential that the core team should include at least one qualified and/or experienced pottery expert. Developing market linkages and adapting the product profile to the demands in the local market are areas of activity that require continuous attention during this period.
Schedule of Activities
The duration of the project is envisaged for a period of two years. The schedule of the activities are as follows:-
Activity Months from start
Identification of the site
Identification of the core team
Clay sent for testing
Networking of the potters 3 months
Plant erection / commissioning
Institutional training of the core team 6 months
Field level training
Product/process finalization 9 months
Monitoring and modifications where necessary 15 months
Production and marketing 21 months
Liability/replicability assessment 24 months
The details of the budget for the project on pottery are as given below. These are broad guidelines and variations may occur, spending on local factors.
§ Project Coordinator (1) Rs. 2500 x 24 months Rs. 60,000
§ Master Artisans (2) Rs. 2000 x 18 months Rs. 72,000
§ Artisans (2) Rs. 1500 x 18 months Rs. 54,000
Sub total Rs. 1,86,000
2. Workshed 1500 sq. ft. @ Rs. 150 /sw. ft. 2,25,000
3. Equipment and machinery 1,50,000
4. Installation 25,000
5. Materials and supplies 50,000
¨ Institutional Rs. 30,000
¨ Field level training Rs. 10,000
¨ Technical back up Rs. 20,000
Sub Total Rs. 60,000
¨ Institutional and other R&D institutions Rs. 45,000
¨ Resource persons Rs. 25,000
¨ Local travel Rs. 25,000
Sub Total Rs. 95,000
8. Overheads @ 10% of the above total 77,100
Total Rs. 8,68,100
1) Centre for Technology and Development,
D-158, Lower Ground Floor,
2) Society for Technology and Development
3) Gramodaya Sangh
4) Centre for Social Work Research
5) Madhya Pradesh Vigyan Sabha (MPVS)
6A, Civil Lines,